Credits are a learner-centred system for credit accumulation and transfer based on the transparency of learning outcomes and learning processes. It aims to facilitate planning, delivery, evaluation, recognition and validation of qualifications and units of learning as well as student mobility. Credits are widely used in formal higher education and can be applied to other lifelong learning activities.
Credits are based on the workload students need in order to achieve expected learning out- comes. Learning outcomes describe what a learner is expected to know, understand and be able to do after successful completion of a process of learning. They relate to level descriptors in national and European qualifications frameworks.
Workload indicates the time students typically need to complete all learning activities (such as lectures, seminars, projects, practical work, self-study and examinations) required to achieve the expected learning outcomes.
60 credits are attached to the workload of a full- time year of formal learning (academic year) and the associated learning outcomes. In most cases, stu- dent workload ranges from 1,500 to 1,800 hours for an academic year, whereby one credit corresponds to 25 to 30 hours of work.
Credits are allocated to entire qualifications or study programmes as well as to their educational com- ponents (such as modules, course units, disserta- tion work, work placements and laboratory work). The number of credits ascribed to each component is based on its weight in terms of the workload stu- dents need in order to achieve the learning outcomes in a formal context.
Credits are awarded to individual students (full-time or part-time) after completion of the learning activities required by a formal programme of study or by a single educational component and the successful as- sessment of the achieved learning outcomes. Credits may be accumulated with a view to obtaining qualifi- cations, as decided by the degree-awarding institution. If students have achieved learning outcomes in other learning contexts or timeframes (formal, non- formal or informal), the associated credits may be awarded after successful assessment, validation or recognition of these learning outcomes.
Credits awarded in one programme may be trans- ferred into another programme, offered by the same or another institution. This transfer can only take place if the degree-awarding institution recognises the credits and the associated learning outcomes. Partner institutions should agree in advance on the recognition of periods of study abroad.